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Socio-cultural Dimensions of English as a Second Language by Rekha Aslam (University of Delhi)

Smt. S. B. Gardi Department of English,
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar
M.A. Semester 3
English Language Teaching 1
Unit 1: The role of English in India
  • The creative exploitation of linguistic resources reflects the values of different socio-cultural traits.
  • The Indian reality is manifested at many levels of language organization from borrowing, lone creatings to idiom, metaphor, symbolism etc. brought to the English language
  • English is taught in India as a second language. The creative exploration of linguistic resources reflects the values of different socio-cultural traits. The Indian reality is manifested at many levels of language organization from borrowing, lone creating to idioms, metaphor, symbolism etc. brought to the English language. 
  • The paper describes how English is made to fulfill the function of a second language. The transition is shown with examples from Fire on the Mountain by Anita Desai, Nectar in a Sieve byKamala Markandaya and R.K. Narayan’s The Dark Room. 
  • The creative writings of Indian writers who have a near native control of the linguistic codes illustrate how English is used creatively and thereby the socio-cultural code infused in it. Manipulation with English is possible since it is a second language.  
  • Christopherson differentiates foreign and second language on the following parameters: 
    • a) A foreign language is a language which is not one’s own, even though one may have a very good knowledge of it. A second language, on the other hand, is a language which is one’s own though not the first in order to importance nor usually the first to be learnt.
    • b)A foreign language is used for the purpose of absorbing the culture of other nations; as a second language is used as an alternative way of expressing a culture of one’s own.
    • c) A foreign language tends to produce bilinguals with a passive and receptive attitudes while a second language produces bilinguals with a passive and receptive attitude while a second language produces bilinguals with active and creative interest.
  • This creativity can be approached from 2 points of view – how the language is manipulated to express antithetically the context and culture of India and how it is exploited for discourse. 
  • Language is not an isolated entity. It is deeply rooted in socio-cultural, religious etc.. concepts of Native speaker’s life. 
  • A writer may make practice of using phonological (graphic) adaptation, lone translation, lone creation as per the requirement of emphasis, etc. and availability.
  •  Native words find their ways in English because of the non-availability of an equivalent counter-part. 
  • Another method of expressing the Indian reality is to use a translation on the basis of semantics. 
  • Advertisements – News paper classifieds, Acronyms such as All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), Delhi University of Teacher Association (DUTA), Discourse pattern – the social meaning of language that is emphasized by socio linguists. Language used to talk to friends, to scold children, conduct business.. i.e. “Accha, I’ll come again.”
  • Intimacy and turn-taking conversations 
  • Language of dominance 
  • Religious temper and language 
  • The caste hierarchy figures prominently in discourse 
  • Semiotics in Indian Literature 
  • The symbols employed enrich second language


  1. Here is the link of my blog:

  2. Respected Sir,
    My response for the given task:-

  3. Here is the link of my blog :

  4. Here is the link of blog


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